Words matter. But words matter more when they are backed by matching action. Words without matching action can be misleading. Those truisms noted, a 3.7.2022 report has been issued by the U.S. Department of Treasury, which antitrust experts and authors like Matt Stoller have been pouring over, commenting on, and reacting to since its publication. Anti-monopoly focused Goliath author Stoller asserts in an email to MHProNews and others that “Monopolies Take a Fifth of Your Wages.” He added that “According to a government [U.S. Treasury] report released today, monopolies cost workers between 15-25% of their wages. Get ready for action by antitrust enforcers.” Time will tell if those words meet with legal action, but employers and employees alike have reasons to lean into this Treasury document and the musings of antitrust attorneys and others on this development. Given the state of play in manufactured housing, which Samuel Strommen at Knudson Law has asserted is a “Rube Goldberg Machine of Human Suffering” due to several asserted violations of antitrust laws which names specific Manufactured Housing Institute (MHI) members such as Clayton Homes, Skyline Champion, and Cavco Industries. Additionally, Strommen cites that monopolization by what he called ‘REITs” is creating harms in the community sector too. Ironically, Frank Rolfe has notoriously used the phrase monopoly himself as he claims it isn’t illegal. Rolfe and others may wake up one day and discover that what they’ve been doing is in fact illegal.
Some pull quotes and the underlying Treasury document will provide some food for thought for employees, employers – perhaps particularly those in consolidating firms – trade associations, consumer advocates and others involved in or impacted. Among the terms used is “monopsony power.”
“Monopsony power exists when one buyer faces little competition from other buyers for that labour or good, so they are able to set wages or prices for the labour or goods they are buying at a level lower than would be the case in a competitive market,” says Wikipedia.
EquitableGrowth said on 7.5.2018 that: “Understanding the importance of monopsony power in the US” that “Monopsony is one increasingly recognized area of research in labor economics that illuminates imperfections in the U.S. labor market…”
Investopedia said: “What Is a Monopsony?
A monopsony is a market condition in which there is only one buyer, the monopsonist. Like a monopoly, a monopsony also has imperfect market conditions. The difference between a monopoly and monopsony is primarily in the difference between the controlling entities. A single buyer dominates a monopsonized market while an individual seller controls a monopolized market. Monosonists are common to areas where they supply most or all of the region’s jobs.
- A monopsony refers to a market dominated by a single buyer.
- In a monopsony, a single buyer generally has a controlling advantage that drives its consumption price levels down.
- Monopsonies commonly experience low prices from wholesalers and an advantage in paid wages.”
The still in the featured image is from the video above. That featured image added Clayton Homes and the Manufactured Housing Institute parody logo by MHProNews to illustrate how this isn’t just the firms in the video, they arguably include firms in our industry too. Other video explanations on Monopsony, monopoly power, and oligopoly are shown below.
As Biden-era inflation is eating away at the value of wages, and price hikes are hitting consumers in every sector, including housing, these are pragmatic issues that play an apparent role in the current market environment. As attentive and longer term MHProNews may recall, MHProNews reported on the Biden White House statement last summer.
From the Executive Summary of the U.S. Treasury Report, linked here as a download, is the following.
“On July 9, 2021, President Biden signed an historic executive order on Promoting Competition in the American Economy. That order underscored the importance of competition in the labor market, stating that “a competitive marketplace creates more high-quality jobs and the economic freedom to switch jobs or negotiate a higher wage.” The order tasked the Treasury Department, in consultation with the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, and the Federal Trade Commission to investigate the efects of a lack of labor market competition on the United States labor market.
This analysis is followed by a description of Biden Administration actions to improve competition, including a commitment by the Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission to vigorously enforce antitrust laws in labor markets. In discussing the market characteristics that enable monopsony power, this report describes how monopsony power emerges when a single firm can restrain its hiring to lower wages and boost profits. While most labor markets do not literally feature a single employer, a market with a small set of employers may mimic a monopsony by each engaging in practices that give them market power over workers.
Concentration in particular industries and locations can lead to workers receiving less pay, fewer benefits, and worse conditions than what they would under conditions of greater competition. …”
From Antitrust Advocate and Goliath Author Matt Stoller…
“In 2018, a new Federal Trade Commissioner named Rohit Chopra began stirring up trouble at the agency.” … “Chopra argued that the FTC should not have let the perpetrator off with a warning, and he made a public criminal referral to the Department of Justice Antitrust Division, which, unlike the FTC, can actually use handcuffs. The DOJ indicted in late 2020, and the courts upheld the indictment late last year in United States vs. Jindal.
That case is the first antitrust criminal case against wage-fixing that made it past the motion-to-dismiss stage, meaning that the Antitrust Division has brought wage-fixing as a crime under the orbit of the antitrust laws for the first time in history. Until Jindal, it hadn’t been accepted by the antitrust bar and the libertarian establishment that monopolizing the purchase of labor is an acceptable purpose of the antitrust laws.”
Stoller points to some of the chatter on antitrust by attorneys.
- “A note by the law firm White & Case, for instance, complained that the move to block Penguin Random House’s attempt to buy Simon & Schuster on the grounds that it would reduce royalties to authors is “emblematic of the Biden administration’s and the new populist antitrust movement’s push to direct the purpose of antitrust away from consumer welfare price effects and towards other social harms.””
Stoller points to the Treasury document, linked above and here, saying:
- “To sum up, monopoly power costs workers a lot of money. “The bulk of our selected studies,” reads the report, “estimate average wage losses to be on the order of 15–25 cents on the dollar (alternately, workers earn between 75 and 85 cents for each dollar of value produced).””
- “”What Treasury did was to summarize the last ten years of economic research, similar to Eric Posner’s book How Antitrust Failed Workers.”
- “The premise of the report is that employers are quite powerful in determining wages, both through concentration and through contractual agreements like non-compete clauses (which I wrote about two years ago). The Treasury Department quotes Nobel prize winner David Card, who told a gathering of the American Economics Association, “I will try to make the case that the time has come to recognize that many—or even most—firms have some wage-setting power.”
Skipping ahead in his analysis, Stoller said that “The data in the report is quite useful, even if the writing is that of a book report recitation of what some economists have written over the last few years. Here are five different facts from the report on employer restrictions of wages.
- 2% of non-union employees, or about 60 million workers, are subject to mandatory arbitration agreements.
- Nearly two-thirds of workers at firms with at least 1,000 employees are subject to mandatory arbitration clauses.
- Academic studies place the decrease in wages due to monopoly power at roughly 20% relative to the level in a fully competitive market. In some industries and occupations, like manufacturing, estimates of wage losses are even higher.
- A recent paper estimates that one-in-five workers is currently subject to non-compete agreements and double that number report having been bound by a non-compete agreement in the past.
- The labor market has become “fissured,” a wide variety of roles ranging from cafeteria workers and janitors to lawyers that were once “in-house” are now contracted out. This domestic outsourcing is estimated to reduce wages from 4 percent to 24 percent in some industries and occupations.
The report offers a number of common restrictions forced on workers, from non-competes to non-disclosure agreements.”
“Coming with Handcuffs”
Stoller draws to a conclusion by saying: “More interestingly, the [U.S. Treasury] report also suggests rule-making by the FTC to prohibit non-compete agreements. That will almost certainly happen, in one form or another. And when it does, the FTC is going to need backup to persuade judges that it’s there’s an emerging consensus in the economics profession that market power lowers wages and reduces market efficiency. This report is that backup.
So get ready. Because tens of millions of people are about to have the non-compete clauses in their contracts declared void. And if employers are wage-fixing, the Antitrust Division is coming with handcuffs.”
MHProNews and MHLivingNews have stood virtually alone in recent years among industry trade publishers or bloggers in spotlighting the various harms that are occurring as a result of the exercise of monopoly power in manufactured housing. These are legal issues that simply won’t likely go away. As Stoller points out, there is a rising tide of ‘populist’ support for antitrust action. That rising tide of support for antitrust action is coming from the political left, center, and right. It is journalistic malpractice to ignore those concerns, as our would-be rivals routinely do. It is arguably association malpractice to ignore the effects of what MHARR’s CEO Mark Weiss, J.D., has pointed call “shell game” and “on steroids” tactics in the so-called advocacy of MHI.
Something similar could apply to the silence or go-along to get along stance of the MHI state affiliates.
Objectively, it is an open question if the Biden regime will bite the hand that feeds them. Biden is in the White House, per a range of sources, due to the corporate power exercised by those Stoller thinks will be now be flexed against them. Really? The case could be made that Biden and other statements could take off despite a possible paltering or posturing agenda.
That on paper some of these statements and antitrust voices are in a position to do substantive antitrust action that includes “handcuffs” is evidenced by the significant legal discussions as to the meaning of these steps by expert observers. The bottom line is that time will tell. From MHProNews/MHLivingNews vantagepoint, our platforms will continue to press the case to the broader public via op-eds and media releases.
That MHI is apparently failing in their self-proclaimed duty is made clear by the op-eds, media releases and years of MHProNews/MHLivingNews reports and analysis that MHI is too timid to publicly debate.
By accident and/or design, there are examples of state associations who have deviated from the MHI party line. That will be monitored and reported as there are implications for board and other members.
In the U.S. and other nations, there is a rising tide of push-back against the power of oligarchs and big government misbehavior.
Stoller had this plug to support his digital reporting.
BIG is a reader-supported newsletter focused on the politics of monopoly and finance. This is journalism and advocacy that challenges power, so please consider a paid subscription. You can always get lies for free. The truth costs a few bucks, but in the long run it’s much cheaper.
That principle of “the truth costs a few bucks, but in the long run it’s much cheaper” could be applied to MHARR and those who strive to push-back against the monopolists and consolidators in our profession.
MHProNews will continue to shine the watchdog light on the issues that press and plague consumers, independents businesses, and employees of consolidators who are from time-to-time sources of information, documents, and tips. Stay tuned to your source for “Intelligence for your MHLife.” ©
Once someone understand ‘the moat’ and man-eating amphibian tactics employed by the powerful and connected, the evidence of that begins to appear in numerous ways.
Next up is our daily business news recap of yesterday evening’s market report, related left-right headlines, and manufactured housing connected equities.
The Business Daily Manufactured Home Industry Connected Stock Market Updates. Plus, Market Moving Left leaning CNN and Right-leaning (Newsmax) Headlines Snapshot. While the layout of this daily business report has been evolving over time, several elements of the basic concepts used previously are still the same. For instance. The headlines that follow below can be reviewed at a glance to save time while providing insights across the left-right media divide. Additionally, those headlines often provide clues as to possible ‘market-moving’ news items.
Market Indicator Closing Summaries – Yahoo Finance Closing Tickers on MHProNews…
Headlines from left-of-center CNN Business – from the evening of 3.11.2022
- Pain at the pump
- NEW YORK, NEW YORK – MARCH 08: Gas prices are displayed at a Brooklyn gas station on March 08, 2022 in New York City. Gas prices are at record highs around the country as the Russian invasion of Ukraine causes global oil markets to surge. American President Joe Biden announced a ban on Russian oil imports into America.
- Why are US gas prices soaring when America barely uses Russian oil?
- Censorship: Russian internet users are learning how to beat Putin’s internet crackdown
- Food crisis: War has brought record wheat prices. More problems loom
- Gold: Republicans and Democrats want to limit Moscow’s access to its reserves
- Reversal: Even Deutsche Bank is getting out of Russia
- Warning: Russia’s richest businessman tells Putin: Don’t take us back to 1917
- Airlines: Flying on Russian planes is about to get much more dangerous
- Watch: Exiled Russian oligarch says Putin’s bankers need to be blocked
- Debt: Russia owes Western banks $120 billion. They won’t get it back
- Big Tech: Why internet backbone services are cutting off Russia
- Trade: Here’s what the ‘most favored nation’ status means — and why Russia still has it
- Shortage: Ukraine halts half of world’s neon output for chips, clouding outlook
- Watch: How Ukraine’s rail system moved thousands of refugees
- Investigation: Russia opens criminal case against Meta following temporary hate speech policy change
- LATEST HEADLINES
- Pedestrians wearing walk past a Walgreens store in San Francisco, California, U.S., on Tuesday, April 13, 2021.
- ‘Why would Walgreens do this?’: The store’s latest update is annoying some shoppers
- Why $4.01 gas in Mississippi hurts more than $5.72 gas in California
- Disney CEO apologizes for ‘silence’ on ‘Don’t Say Gay’ bill
- Dow falls for the fifth straight week
- These stocks could get much cheaper
- Watch how this truck-sized rover could transport astronauts on the Moon
- US consumer sentiment has fallen more than expected
- Risk of a US recession as high as 35%, Goldman Sachs says
- The US dollar could go digital. Here’s what you need to know
- These business owners survived Covid. Now gas prices are surging
- Don’t believe these 8 common credit score myths
- Have you been affected by rising gas prices? Tell us about it.
- Right-wing group targets New York Times reporters who have aggressively reported on its spy tactics
- Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai, left, and Amazon CEO Andy Jassy
- Alphabet and Amazon could give the Dow a 21st century facelift
- Amazon’s stock is about to get much, much cheaper
- Former Amazon employee sentenced to federal prison
- Amazon is closing all of its physical bookstores
- Salary caps double for Amazon white-collar employees
- COMPANIES LEAVE RUSSIA
- MOSCOW, RUSSIA – FEBRUARY 26, 2022: A re:Store shop in central Moscow. One of the largest Apple resellers, re:Store has halted receiving orders in Russia until further notice.
- Here are the companies pulling back from Russia
- Burger King pulls support from its Russian locations
- McDonald’s, Starbucks and Coca-Cola leave Russia
- Shell won’t buy any more Russian oil and gas
- Stoli vodka announces rebrand
Headlines from right-of-center Newsmax – evening of 3.11.2022
- Russia Strikes Near Ukraine’s Capital; Mosque Reported Hit in Mariupol
- An explosion is seen in an apartment building after Russian’s army tank fires in Mariupol, Ukraine, on Friday.
- Russian forces pounding the port city of Mariupol shelled a mosque sheltering more than 80 people, including children, the Ukrainian government said Saturday. Fighting also raged on the outskirts of Ukraine’s capital, Kyiv, as Russia’s expanding invasion bombarded other resisting cities into rubble. [Full Story]
- Russian Invasion of Ukraine
- Why Biden Vetoed Plane Transfer: ‘That’s Called World War III’
- Concern Grows Over Traffickers Targeting Ukrainian Refugees
- As Companies Leave Russia, Their Assets Could be Seized
- ‘There are Many Corpses in the Streets, Nobody Buries Them’
- What the EU Is Doing to Help Ukraine Refugees
- Oil, Sanctions, Jets: How Congress Pushes Biden on Ukraine
- Ukraine Says Shelling Damaged Cancer Hospital
- Report: Zelenskyy Refuses Israeli PM’s Advice to Surrender
- US Sanctions Russian Billionaire, Putin Spokesman’s Family
- Russia-Ukraine War: Key Things to Know About the Conflict
- Ukrainian Hackers Conduct Counterespionage
- Russia Widens Social Media Crackdown by Blocking Instagram
- Russia Is Not a ‘Most Favored Nation.’ What Now?
- Uber to Roll Out Fuel Surcharge in US as Gas Soars
- Report: Russia Threatens to Strand US Astronaut in Space
- More Russian Invasion of Ukraine
- Newsmax TV
- Ukraine Ex-President to Newsmax: US, NATO Must Be ‘Shoulder to Shoulder’ With Us | video
- Oz: Biden ‘Getting it Wrong’ on Energy Policy | video
- Gohmert: Russia Could Use Iran to Sell Its Oil to US | video
- Guest: US Has Reached ‘Maximum’ in Russia Sanctions | video
- Buddy Carter: Blame Biden, Not Putin, for Gas Prices | video
- Gold Medalist Baiul: ‘Not Scared’ of Putin | video
- Meuser: Putin Could Use Chemical Weapons | video
- Comer: Biden Won’t Solve High Gas Prices | video
- Ukraine MP Rudik: What Is NATO’s ‘End Game?’ | video
- Ukraine MP Goncharenko: Jets Needed to Fight ‘Real Genocide’ | video
- More Newsmax TV
- Texas Judge Halts Probes of Trans Youth Parents
- A Texas judge on Friday blocked the state from investigating as child abuse gender confirming care for transgender youth.District Judge Amy Clark Meachum issued a temporary injunction preventing the state from enforcing Republican Gov. Greg Abbott’s directive to compel the…… [Full Story]
- Justice Thomas Slams Cancel Culture, ‘Packing’ Supreme Court
- S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas said he’s concerned [Full Story]
- Berkshire Rejects Shareholder Call to Replace Warren Buffett as Chairman
- Berkshire Hathaway Inc on Friday urged the rejection of four [Full Story]
- Fines, Fear, Self-Censorship: Russia’s New Ukraine Law Casts Chill
- After almost eight hours sitting in a police station and court, Vera [Full Story]
- Disney to Pause Fla. Political Donations Over Law Limiting LGBT Discussion
- Walt Disney Co is pausing all political donations in Florida after an [Full Story]
- Disney CEO Apologizes to LGBTQ Employees, Will Halt Florida Political Donations
- DeSantis Blasts ‘Woke’ Disney CEO Over Parental Rights Bill Criticism
- Biden Used NY Times, Wash Post Articles to Defend Energy Policy
- President Joe Biden used information from The New York Times and The [Full Story]
- Big Tech, Business Attempt to Punish Russia Could Backfire
- A flurry of multinational corporations and U.S.-based Big Tech [Full Story] | Platinum Article
- Biden Angry Over Inflation Narrative, Warns Dems About Midterms
- President Joe Biden expressed displeasure to Democrat lawmakers on [Full Story]
- Republicans Slam ‘Hypocritical’ Airplane Mask Mandate Extension
- The Biden administration’s one-month extension of mask mandates at [Full Story] | Platinum Article
- Pelosi: House Will Vote Next Week on Revoking Russia’s Trade Status
- House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., said the House plans to vote [Full Story]
- Report: Zelenskyy Refuses Israeli PM’s Advice to Surrender to Russia
- Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett reportedly told Ukrainian [Full Story]
- Biden on Rejecting Ukraine Plane Transfer: ‘That’s Called World War III’
- President Biden on Friday defended his decision to reject a plan for [Full Story]
- Texas Clinics’ Suit Over Abortion Law ‘Effectively Over’
- The Texas Supreme Court on Friday dealt essentially a final blow to [Full Story]
- Ukrainian Hackers Conduct Counterespionage
- Civilian Ukrainian hackers are conducting a form of counter-espionage [Full Story]
- S. inflation rose 7.9% in February, the biggest annual gain since [Full Story]
- Poll: Many More Americans See China as Threat Than Russia
- Poll: Many More Americans See China as Threat Than Russia
- A new poll finds that many more Americans see China as a threat to [Full Story]
- Yellen: Economy Strong, but There Will Be Spillovers from Russia Sanctions
- Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said on Friday that the U.S. economy [Full Story]
- Poll: Biden Doesn’t Receive State of the Union Approval Bounce
- A Wall Street Journal poll released on Friday confirmed Democrats’ [Full Story]
- US, NATO Rushing Shoulder-Fired Missiles to Ukraine, but Not Without Risks
- The United States and NATO are shipping weapons into Ukraine at [Full Story]
- No Indictment for Texans QB Watson over Sex Assault Claims
- A grand jury on Friday declined to indict Houston Texans quarterback [Full Story]
- Report: Russia Threatens to Strand US Astronaut in Space
- Russia is threatening to leave an American astronaut stranded in [Full Story]
- Russia Is Not a ‘Most Favored Nation.’ What Now?
- In escalating the U.S. drive to squeeze Russia’s economy, President [Full Story]
- Uber to Roll Out Fuel Surcharge in US as Gas Soars
- Uber Technologies Inc. said on Friday U.S. customers, excluding New [Full Story]
- Former Ukrainian Pres. Poroshenko to Newsmax: Need US, NATO to Stand ‘Shoulder to Shoulder’ With Us
- Former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko says he admires President [Full Story] | video
- Report: Inflation Costing Average Household Almost $300 per Month
- A recent study from Moody’s Analytics demonstrated that inflation is [Full Story]
- Stocks Fall Again as Uncertainty Over Ukraine War Persists
- Stocks fell again after another bumpy day of trading on Wall Street [Full Story]
- Ukraine: Putin Planning a New Chernobyl Catastrophe to Blackmail World
- Ukraine says Russian President Vladimir Putin has ordered the [Full Story]
- US Targets Russian Oligarchs, Elites in Fresh Sanctions
- The United States on Friday imposed sanctions on more Russian [Full Story]
- Guest to Newsmax: US Has Reached ‘Maximum’ in Russia Sanctions
- The United States has “reached a maximum as far as sanctions” and [Full Story] | video
- YouTube Expands Initial Ban for Russian State Media
- On Friday, YouTube announced that it will block Russian [Full Story]
- Pentagon Revives Team Used Under Trump to Speed Arms to Ukraine, Allies
- The Pentagon is turning to a special team to respond to increased [Full Story]
- More Newsfront
- Russia’s Attack on Ukraine Halts Half the World’s Neon Output for Chips
- Ukraine’s two leading suppliers of neon, which produce about half the world’s supply of the key ingredient for making chips, have halted their operations as Moscow has sharpened its attack on the country…. [Full Story]
- Ruble Drops a Further 8 Percent This Week in Moscow
- Sony Pictures Pauses Russia Operations
- Yale Strikes Sackler Name From Campus Amid Opioid Outrage
- Trevor Gerszt: Gold Reaches $2,000 on New Fears Over Ukraine Crisis
- More Finance
- Time Change is Dangerous to Your Health: How to Prepare
- You may only worry about losing an hour of sleep when the clocks spring forward this Sunday, but the time change can also be dangerous for your health, an expert says. Research shows that the risk of stroke, heart attack and traffic accidents all increase in the days…… [Full Story]
- Vitamin D3 Better at Boosting Immunity Than D2
- Ukrainians with Disabilities Face Insurmountable Obstacles
- Flu Vaccine Ineffective Against This Season’s Variants: Study
- New Test Detects 50 Rare Genetic Diseases, Shortens Time to Diagnosis
MHProNews has pioneered in our profession several reporting elements that keep our regular and attentive readers as arguably the best informed in the manufactured housing industry. Among the items shared after ‘every business day’ (when markets are open) is our left-right headline recap summary. At a glance in two to three minutes, key ‘market moving’ news items are covered from left-of-center CNN Business and right-of-center Newsmax. “We Provide, You Decide.” © Additionally, MHProNews provides expert commentary and analysis on the issues that others can’t or won’t cover that help explain why manufactured housing has been underperforming during the Berkshire era while an affordable housing crisis and hundreds of thousands of homeless in America rages on. These are “Industry News, Tips, and Views Pros Can Use” © features and others made and kept us the runaway #1 in manufactured housing trade publisher for a dozen years and counting.
Manufactured Housing Industry Investments Connected Equities Closing Tickers
Some of these firms invest in manufactured housing, or are otherwise connected, but may do other forms of investing or business activities too.
- NOTE: The chart below includes the Canadian stock, ECN, which purchased Triad Financial Services, a manufactured home industry lender
- NOTE: Drew changed its name and trading symbol at the end of 2016 to Lippert (LCII).
- NOTE: Deer Valley was largely taken private, say company insiders in a message to MHProNews on 12.15.2020, but there are still some outstanding shares of the stock from the days when it was a publicly traded firm. Thus, there is still periodic activity on DVLY.
Manufactured Home Communities (a.k.a. ‘Mobile Home Parks’ – SIC) – Exploring UMH Properties; Fellow Manufactured Housing Institute Member Yes! Communities Suits and Settlements; plus MH Markets Updates
MHProNews. MHProNews – previously a.k.a. MHMSM.com – has celebrated our 11th year of publishing and have completed over a dozen years of serving the industry as the runaway most-read trade media.
Sample Kudos over the years…
It is now 12+ years and counting…
Learn more about our evolutionary journey as the industry’s leading trade media, at the report linked below.
· For expert manufactured housing business development or other professional services, click here.
· To sign up in seconds for our industry leading emailed headline news updates, click here.
Disclosure. MHProNews holds no positions in the stocks in this report.
That’s a wrap on this installment of “News Through the Lens of Manufactured Homes and Factory-Built Housing” © where “We Provide, You Decide.” © (Affordable housing, manufactured homes, stock, investing, data, metrics, reports, fact-checks, analysis, and commentary. Third-party images or content are provided under fair use guidelines for media.) (See Related Reports, further below. Text/image boxes often are hot-linked to other reports that can be access by clicking on them.)
By L.A. “Tony” Kovach – for MHProNews.
Tony earned a journalism scholarship along with numerous awards in history. There have been several awards and honors and also recognition in manufactured housing. For example, he earned the prestigious Lottinville Award in history from the University of Oklahoma, where he studied history and business management. He’s a managing member and co-founder of LifeStyle Factory Homes, LLC, the parent company to MHProNews, and MHLivingNews.com. This article reflects the LLC’s and/or the writer’s position and may or may not reflect the views of sponsors or supporters.